Create a week11 subdirectory in your weeklylab subdirectory and copy over some files:
cd cs31/weeklylab pwd mkdir week11 ls cd week11 pwd cp ~kwebb/public/cs31/week11/* . ls Makefile circularqueue.c globalvars.c signals.c
Let's look at the program signals.c. This program has some examples of registering a signal handler function on a signal, and of some examples of ways in which you can send signals to processes (for example, alarm can be used to send a SIGALRM to one's self).
We will try running this and use the kill command to send the process signals:
kill -INT 1234 # sends a SIGINT signal to process 1234
Let's try running the program and see what it is doing.
The man page for signal lists the signals on this system and describes the signal system call in more detail.
Global variables are variables declared outside a function definition. They are always in scope, and the space for them persists for the entire run of the program.
Let's open globals.c and take a look at it.
The static modifier to their declaration limits the scope to functions within this .c file (only those can name these global variables), but there storage space still persists for the entire run of the program.
You should generally avoid using global variables as much as possible, but sometimes you must use them when you need a value to persist between function calls (beyond the return from a function that could create it as a local... i.e. there is no function that could be on the call stack and have this as a local).
This example is not an obvious need for a global variable, but if this code was being used to implement a library, then there may be a real need for using a global. For now, I just want you to see and use global variables. However, you should avoid using global variables in your program except when explicitly allowed. In general, you should always design functions to take as parameters the values they need; if a function needs a value, pass it in, and if a caller needs a value from the function return it (or pass in pass-by-reference style parameters through which the function can modify the caller's argument values). This makes your code more generic than using globals, and it avoids allocation of space for the entire run of your program when it is not needed.
For our shell, we'll allow global variables for a specific purpose: implementing a circular queue of command history.
A queue is a data structure whose values are ordered in FIFO order (first-in-first-out). New items are added to the end of the queue and removed from the beginning of the queue (FIFO semantics for adding and removing).
You are going to implement a queue as an fixed-size circular array of int values where each time a new value is added to a full array, it replaces the currently first item in the array (the oldest value added to the queue).
As values are added and removed the first and last bucket index values of the queue change. When the very last bucket is filled the first time, the next value added will replace the value in bucket 0 (the new end of the list) and the first bucket in the list now becomes bucket 1 (the next bucket to replace). When the next value after that is added, it is added to bucket 1 (the new end of the list) and the new start of the list becomes bucket 2. And, so on. This is a circular array implementation of a queue because the first and last bucket indices cycle around the array indexes (0, 1, ..., 4, 0, 1, ..., 4, 0, 1, ...)
For example, for a circular queue of int values of size 5:
after adding values: 3, 6, 17: the queue has 3 elements, and the next bucket to insert into is bucket 3 0 1 2 3 4 --------------------- first value in the queue is in bucket 0 3 | 6 | 17 | | | ---------------------- last value in the queue is in bucket 2 after adding values: 10, 4: the queue has 5 elements, and the next bucket to insert into is bucket 0 0 1 2 3 4 ---------------------- the first value in the queue is in bucket 0 3 | 6 | 17 | 10 | 4 | ---------------------- the last value in the queue is in bucket 4 after adding the value 7: the list has 5 elements, and the next bucket to insert into is bucket 1 0 1 2 3 4 ---------------------- the first value in the queue is in bucket 1 7 | 6 | 17 | 10 | 4 | ---------------------- the last value in the queue is in bucket 0 after adding the value 9: the list has 5 elements, and the next bucket to insert into is bucket 2 0 1 2 3 4 ---------------------- the first value in the queue is in bucket 2 7 | 9 | 17 | 10 | 4 | ---------------------- the last value in the queue is in bucket 1 printing out the queue from first to last value is: 17 10 4 7 9
In circqueue.c is the starting point of a circular queue implementation. You are going to implement and test two functions:
void add_queue(int value): add a new value to the queue (and update queue state) the value added should replace the first item in the queue if the array is full void print_queue(): print out the values in the queue from first to last
This code uses global variables for the queue (implemented as an array of ints) and for other state associated with the queue (and feel free to add more state variables if you need them).
This example is also not an obvious need for a global variable, but if this code was being used to implement a single queue library, then declaring the queue and its state as a global might be necessary.Remember, you should always avoid using global variables in your program, and only do so when except explicitly allowed in this class.